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Weather History

#255 TAHOE'S SNOWIEST WINTER (1938)

TAHOE NUGGET #255: TAHOE’S SNOWIEST WINTER (1938)

It’s been 75 years since the Tahoe-Truckee region was crushed under nearly 70 feet of snow in 1938. And similar to this winter, that epic season started off with a very wet fall, followed by a bone dry January. But the Storm King roared back after that and never let up until setting a snowfall record on Donner Pass that still stands today.

Most Tahoe winters exhibit a roller coaster ride of sun and storm, with an eventual accumulation of about 35 feet of snow on Donner Pass. The 2013 water year started off with a bang, but has recently taken a respite and we’ve seen hardly a flake since New Years. January, normally the wettest month of the winter has been a bust this year, but there is still plenty of time to ratchet up the storm machine. It’s a climatologically normal pattern and we just go along for the ride.

Pre World War II snowplows combined blades and blowers to remove snow.

The snowiest winter in history dumped 68 feet on Donner Pass and like this year the season started off with a few major weather events, but then precipitation stalled. Conditions were wet and mild during the fall of 1937, but nothing out of the ordinary. When the season’s first major low pressure system swept in off the ocean in the middle of December dumping snow on the peaks, mountain residents hardly noticed.

After that first storm, however, temperatures began to rise, raising snow levels to near 9,000 feet. Driven by gale force winds, a sub-tropical system surged into the mountains unloading 5 inches of rain in 24 hours. The deluge transformed portions of vital trans-Sierra Highway 40 into a raging river and shut down the road. Gullies and streams filled beyond capacity, and rushing water ripped out 180 feet of train track near Emigrant Gap, terminating train travel too.

Dog sleds were frequently used in Truckee during big winters. In a pinch, any breed will do. Note skier at far left. 

All the creeks draining Sierra canyons on Tahoe’s West Shore overflowed, inundating estates with more than 6 feet of debris-laden water. Racing waters displaced boulders and downed trees over Highway 28 making travel perilous and eventually impossible. Conditions were worse near South Lake Tahoe where a roaring wall of water swept down Glen Alpine Canyon near Fallen Leaf Lake carrying away homes and roadway.

The tropic-like storm dumped nearly 10 inches of rain on Lake Tahoe, raising the lake’s water level 9 inches in three days. When the skies finally cleared, there was barely a foot of snow left on the mountains. Most of January was dry, but at the end of the month a barrage of cold storms inundated higher elevations with 12 feet of snow in less than a week. From then on the storms hit hard and fast, swept along by winds gusting to 90 mph. It began a siege of extreme weather that would last for 21 consecutive days.

The highway over Echo Summit to South Lake Tahoe was rarely plowed before World War II, but that didn’t stop these ardent motorists.

Small towns throughout the Sierra were inundated by the snowfall. Tahoe residents shoveled 17 feet of new snow in 16 days. Truckee businesses and expensive lake front homes were in danger of collapse so men and boys were hired to remove snow. There were no mail deliveries to Tahoe City for more than a week and no fresh food available for twice that long.

The heavy snow was a financial boon for locals who could earn 50 cents an hour shoveling roofs, nearly twice the prevailing wage. This is Frank A. Titus, an early resident of Truckee and an engineer on the Lake Tahoe Railway. 

In February a week-long blizzard buried Tahoe communities with another 9 feet of snow. At one point Tahoe City was completely isolated with no automobile traffic and all communication cut off for two weeks.

By Valentine’s Day, the snow was 20 feet deep on Donner Summit. During a rare break in the weather, the steamer that regularly circled Lake Tahoe with mail and deliveries arrived back in Tahoe City. The captain mentioned that if anyone wanted some horsemeat, it was available at Glenbrook, Nevada. Apparently a caretaker there had shot a horse due to injury and was willing to share the meat if anyone was interested.

Snow piling up at Homewood on Lake Tahoe’s West Shore, circa 1938.

The story spread to San Francisco and even Los Angeles that snowbound Tahoe residents were running out of food and near starvation. Thoughts of the Donner Party tragedy began to crop up. On February 17, the San Francisco Examiner quoted Tahoe City Constable Harry Johanson as saying he was “holding in reserve 1,000 pounds of fresh horsemeat, should the situation get serious and the need for fresh meat become acute.”

California Governor Merriam was alerted and the San Francisco Call Bulletin newspaper enlisted United Airlines to organize an emergency food drop at Tahoe City.  Local residents built signal fires in the middle of the Tahoe City Golf Course and that night an airplane swung in low to 400 feet, dropping 10 boxes of bread, meat and vegetables. Most of the the boxes shattered when they hit trees, but the contents were safely retrieved by cross-country skiers and distributed around the community. 

Tahoe City residents on skis returning with a battered box dropped in the emergency airlift.

The winter of ’38 started late, but made up for it with powerful storms in February and March. By May, a record 819 inches of snow had buried Donner Pass, the greatest seasonal snowfall since measurements began in 1878.

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Categories
Tahoe Snowstorms

#254 BIG WINTER ON A ROLL!

TAHOE NUGGET #254: BIG WINTER ON A ROLL!

Winter 2013 has come out of the gate fast and furious and snow sports enthusiasts are loving the abundant fresh powder during this holiday period. Tahoe-Truckee resorts and businesses are reaping the economic benefits derived from a solid early season snowpack that draws visitors. It’s a great start to a new year.

Heavy snowfall during the Christmas holidays made road travel challenging, but the high quality powder made for epic skiing and riding at Tahoe resorts.

Remember two years ago when the Northern Sierra was hammered by the epic winter of 2011, the ninth snowiest since 1879 on Donner Pass?  (2011 was also the 7th wettest winter in a century at Tahoe City.) Seasons like that don’t come around very often. Or do they? Don’t look now, but this winter is already giving 2011 a run for its money.

As of New Year’s Day 2013, total aggregate precipitation across the Northern Sierra is running neck and neck with a near identical booster-rocket graph trajectory exhibited in the final months of 2010.

Remarkably, by January 1 both 2011 and 2013 winters had streaked ahead of 1983 in precipitation, the wettest year of record in the 8 Station Northern Sierra Index, established in 1922.

It seems logical to think that one significant difference between winter 2011 and this year, however, would be 2012’s early December deluge of higher elevation rainfall that nearly caused a major flood event on the Truckee River near Truckee and Reno.

The lack of snow and heavy rain demoralized skiers and some resort operators, but when you compare snowfall tallies for 2011 and 2013 up to New Year’s Day, you might be surprised.

Early December rainstorms left the base of KT22 chairlift in poor condition. Today the snowpack there is a solid 4 feet deep. 

So far this season, at the 8,200-foot-level of Squaw Valley, they have received nearly 21 feet of snow. By the same date in 2011, they had picked up a bit more than 24 feet.

How about at the bottom of the mountain where conditions were so bleak after that post Thanksgiving rain event? This year so far—12.4 feet of snow measured at Squaw Valley’s 6,200 foot level. By the same date in 2011?  — 13.6 feet. Let’s face it. We’re on a roll.

Last December the Tahoe Basin got skunked. This December we got hammered! Special thanks to the crew at the NWS office in Reno for the great graphics they produce.

Currently Northern California is under the protection of a strong high pressure system that should be around for a while. Sunny skies, calm winds and crisp temperatures are the rule in this weather pattern. Last winter persistent high pressure circulation remained locked over the eastern Pacific Ocean keeping Tahoe dry for a record 56 consecutive mid-winter days.

The 2012 prolonged dry spell was a rare event, but a normal Tahoe winter does experience extended periods of storm free days. These storm breaks usually come in December or January and average about 19 days in duration.

Wind-free high pressure regimes generate atmospheric inversions where cold, dense air settles into basins and valley bottoms for days on end. Not only do they suppress daytime temperatures, but they also trap particulate pollution in the lower levels of the atmosphere that creates bad air quality.

Atmospheric inversion envelopes Reno, Nevada, in cold, poor quality air. Residents there will have to wait for the next storm or a wind event to scour out the valley.

During these inversion conditions the ski slopes around Lake Tahoe are significantly warmer than the lower elevations. Skiing and riding at Tahoe doesn’t get much better than this —a healthy snowpack from 5 to 12.5 feet deep topped by packed powder surface conditions.

Did I mention the glorious sunshine showing off the groomed corduroy and chalky steep pitches? Tahoe is Game On!

Squaw Valley parking lot packed on New Year’s Eve. The resort is so big, however, that after looking up at the slopes my wife asked me “where are all the skiers?” Due to more than 30 hi-speed lifts and expansive terrain, the mountain can handle thousands of guests and not feel crowded.

Seen in Squaw Valley parking lot. No doubt where they ski!

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